Queuing Theory for evaluating system performance in Event Driven Architecture – Part 2

In my previous post on Event Driven Architecture (EDA), we looked at the basic building blocks of EDA and some of the considerations around the system performance for event generation, processing and publishing. We discussed about the importance of running the performance tests to evaluate the system behavior under peak load.

In this article, we’ll discuss the basics of queuing model and how it can help in calculating the performance metrics of a system having  queues for temporary persistence of events.

Queuing Theory

Queuing theory has been widely used in Operations Research to calculate the waiting times and the resources required to service customers in call centers, service patients in hospitals and traffic engineering. It is also used in computer science for analyzing the stacks (a queue storing system state) used for running the processes and resources on the CPU.

Any system that involves a queue inherently introduces a delay in serving the customer e.g. waiting on the line when you call the customer care service of your internet provider, cable or phone service provider and you are asked to wait for X mins before being served. How’s that the service provider is able to provide you an estimated wait time until you get to talk to a customer service agent? How does your bank know how many agents to staff in the call center to service customer calls or how many representatives are required at a bank branch to serve the customers stopping by at the branch? Queuing theory helps in answering all these questions i.e. average waiting time for the customers, number of customer service agents required to service customer and the average number of customers that could be waiting in the queue before they are served.

Queuing Theory principles can also be applied to a system generating and processing the events. The events are messages waiting in a queue to be served (processed) by the event processor application hosted on the server. Following are some of the performance metrics that can be evaluated-

  1. Average waiting time for the events in the queue
  2. Average Queue Length or Queue Depth
  3. Number of event processor instances (server nodes) required to ensure that the delay in event processing is within the acceptable limit

Little’s Theorem

Little’s theorem provides an important mathematical relationship between the customer or event arrival rate (λ) and the customer or event processing times (T) and is expressed as-

N = λT


N is the average number of customers or events in the queuing system

λ is the average customer or event arrival rate

T is the average service time for the customer or event processing time

Queuing System Characteristics

We’ll now take a look at some of the important characteristics of the queuing system and how they help in further classifying the queuing system to simplify the analysis as it relates to event processing.

Event Generation or Event Arrival

Events generated by the system that are put on a raw queue for processing are assumed to have an arrival rate λ expressed as number of events generated per second, minute or hour.

The event arrival follows Poisson Distribution and has an important characteristic of the system being memory-less i.e. the arrival of the next event is independent of the arrival of the current event. The total number of events occurring in a small interval of time is unknown and assumed to be a random variable. The inter arrival time between the events is also considered to be a random variable i.e. the time before the next event occurs after the current event is generated is unknown. The inter-arrival wait time for the events follow exponential distribution i.e. the probability of the event occurring in a time interval is proportional to the length of the time interval. In other words, once the event has occurred the probability that the next event will occur in 1 second is higher than the probability that the next event will occur in 500 ms.

Event Processing

Events processed by the event processor are assumed to have processing rate of μ expressed as number of events processed per second, minute or hour.

The time it takes to process the event is also considered to have an exponential distribution.

Number of servers or processing nodes

The number of servers or the processing nodes that are available to process the generated events. When modelling the event processor application hosted on an application server there could be multiple container threads running in parallel to process the events. Hence the total number of servers in this case would depend on the number of nodes the application is installed and the maximum number of container threads defined for each node based on the available resources (memory, CPU and network I/O).

Total number of servers i.e. the processing threads = number of nodes * container threads on each node

Queuing System Classification

Kendall’s Notation

Queuing systems are commonly classified using the Kendall’s notation which follows the convention A/S/n.

A – Event arrival process

S – Event service process

n – Number of servers to process the events

In the event processing scenario where the event arrival and event processing has exponential distribution, the event arrival and event service processes are denoted by “M” i.e. Markov or memory-less. We also assume that there will be multiple servers to process the events in parallel to achieve the required throughput.

Kendall notation for the event processing system can be expressed as M/M/n.

The queuing system can also be further classified based on the finite or infinite queue length. In order to have a finite queue length, it’s important that λ/μ < 1 i.e. the event generation rate or arrival rate is less than the event processing rates. If λ/μ > 1 then the events will gradually start queuing up and theoretically we would need an infinite queue to prevent any loss of events due to queue getting filled up.

It is undesirable to have a queuing system where λ/μ > 1 as it will require an infinite queue which is practically in-feasible and will also result in unacceptable delays in processing the events. So, if we design a system where event arrival rate is always less than the event processing rate i.e. λ/μ < 1 then the question would be why we need a queue? Even if we have a queue to decouple the event generation and event processing, would the queue length or queue depth always be “Zero” or “One”?

We discussed that the arrival rate for events is average arrival rate and randomly distributed. It could happen that all the events arrive in a small interval of time or may be spread throughout the given time window. Also, the processing time of the events can vary and is randomly distributed. It is very likely that more number of events arrive in a small time interval than the system can actually process. There could be scenarios where system generates large number of events with spikes due to increased activity on the website as a result of ongoing marketing campaign or batch processes during offline processing. Even if the overall system is designed to have λ/μ < 1, there is a randomness in the system where the event arrival rate could exceed the event processing rate in a small time interval. Hence,  it’s important to have a queue to persisted the events temporarily before they are processed by the server.

Simple Event Processor Queuing Model

We’ll analyze a simple event processor queuing model (M/M/n) where λ/μ < 1

We are interested in calculating the following system parameters-

  1. Length of the System (Ls) – Total count of the average number of events in the queue and the events currently processed by the the event processor
  2. Length of the queue (Lq) – Average number of events in the queue
  3. Waiting time in the system (Ws) – Total waiting time in the queue and the time it takes for the event to get processed in the event processor
  4. Waiting time in the queue (Wq) – Waiting time in the queue

Following diagram shows an event processing system having multiple event generators putting the events on the queue which are then processed by event processor application running on multiple nodes.

Simple Event Processor

The aggregated average event arrival rate (λ) in this scenario is 500,000 events/hour and the average event processing rate (μ) is 18,000 events/hour for each message listener thread on the server node. We are assuming that the event processor application is installed on 3 nodes and each node has 10 message listener container threads available to poll the events from the event queue.

So, for this M/M/n queuing system we have the following-

λ = 500,000 events/hour

μ = 18,000 events/hour

n = 30

There are calculators available based on the queuing theory that helps in calculating the performance metrics that we discussed in this article. Using the calculator we can easily arrive at the following results for the above queuing system.


  1. Total number of events (event queue and event processor)  – 35.09 events
  2. Number of events in the event queue  – 7.31 events
  3. Total event processing time (Time spent in event queue and event processing time) – 0.25 seconds
  4. Event waiting time in the event queue – 0.05 seconds

It is important to note that there could be various other factors specific to the use case that can impact the system performance. For instance, there could be micro-batching of event streams such that the event processor processes a small batch of events instead of single event at a time. Queuing theory principles discussed in this article would still apply for evaluating the system performance before running the actual performance tests by taking into account the size of batched events.

To summarize, we discussed how the queuing theory can be applied to event processing required for implementing Event Driven Architecture in an enterprise. By knowing the event arrival rate and event processing rate, we can easily calculate the average event processing time and the average event queue length. Queuing analysis can help in approximate sizing of the infrastructure (Queue capacity, number of server nodes, number of container threads ) even before we run the performance tests. It also provides a theoretical baseline to compare the results of performance test runs. Once the performance tests are run and metrics captured, one can arrive at the real system performance metrics and right sizing of the infrastructure for the queuing system.

2 thoughts on “Queuing Theory for evaluating system performance in Event Driven Architecture – Part 2

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s